History of castle Doorwerth

History of castle Doorwerth

A concise complete history of Kasteel Doorwerth.

Wooden Tower

Built before 1260, exact date not known, as wooden tower on an island to levy toll. This strategic location offers the opportunity to defend the castle. The first known owner is Berend van Dorenweerd.

1260: first mention and destruction

The first mention of the Castle is in lesser times when the original wooden structure is besieged and set on fire by the Lord of Vianen in 1260. The Count of Gelre had ordered this to limit the predatory practices of Berend.

Larger and better: Rebuilding of stone

20 years later, in 1280, a rectangular tower with a canal was built by Berend or his son Hendric. A water castle or residential tower, made of stone with a size of 10 by 15 meters. The walls were set up 1.2 meters thick. The canal that ran around the tower was fed by the Lower Rhine.

This tower is what we now know as the current East Wing.

1436: expansions by Reinald van Homoet

Reinald van Homoet enlarges the south wing and moves the main entrance.
We suspect that he has also built the massive North Wing. Writings with calculations for a major renovation date 1435-1436, but it does not mention that this is part of the castle.

huidige plan van kasteel doorwerth
current map of castle doorwerth

1560: Adam Schelleart

1560 Adam Schelleart from Obbendorf lord of Gurzenich, together with his fellow residents, makes the latest changes. Living comfort became more important after the 16th century.
The south wing is being expanded again and a south-west tower is being built. Thus the largest size of the main castle was reached.

The last mentioned tower was demolished in the 18th century and rebuilt in the 19th century.

1579: plants of the Acacia

1579 oldest date when possible the acacia is planted in the courtyard in honor of the Union of Utrecht.

Acacia  in kasteel Doorwerth
Acacia in castle Doorwerth

kasteel doorwerth en tuinen
castle doorwerth and gardens

Dikes

Dikes gave the lord the opportunity to own more agricultural land. At the same time, it ensured that rivers had less room to execute in the winter. This caused the lowest floors of the castle to be dry in winter times.
To prevent this, a dike was constructed around the castle grounds in 1643, commissioned by Johan Albrecht Schellart of Obbendorf.
Not only did he link the castle to the dam with these dikes. There was also a polder and space for a large square garden. So the castle offered what the owners needed at that time. Not a well-defensible castle but a castle where you could entertain yourself and had the space to receive people.

Gatebuilding

In the year 1640, the northern corner was renovated and the gatehouse was built by the grandson of Adam, Johan Vincent van Schellaert of Obbendorf.

Anton I count of Aldenburg

Acquired the castle as Johan’s greatest creditor. For Anton this was not his main residence. He lived at his castles in Varel and Kniphausen.
His widow Charlotte Amelie duchess de la Tremoille stayed there after she flee in 1684.

Disaster year

In the disaster year 1672 for the Netherlands, Anton van Aldenburg kept the castle intact.
The disaster year was the year that the Dutch War began and the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands was attacked by England, France and the dioceses of Munster and Cologne.
These were also exciting times for castle because the French and the kingdom of the Netherlands were stationed in the vicinity of Doorwerth.

Case observers

The Aldenburg’s rarely stayed in the castle. At that time, the management of the castle was outsourced to observers. They have negotiated the seizure of French troops.

Debts

Debt was regularly repaid with the sale of trees and / or pieces of wood land. Both Willem Bentinck and Charlotte Sophie did this. Willem sold a piece of forest for 5300 guilders, and Sophie did this in 1779 when she recovered the rights to Doorwerth after the lawsuit.

The gardens

Charlotte Sophie hires J.G. Michael to setup the gardens in 1784. Michael probably took 4 years for this job, proof of this are several bills paid over those years.

huidige contructie van kasteel doorwerth
Current construction of castle Doorwerth
poortgebouw kasteel doorwerth
The gatehouse overlooking the floodplains
Kasteel doorwerth vanaf de stuwwal in 1742
Castle doorwerth from the moraine in 1742

Neglect

After the death of Sophie in 1800, the castle fell into the hands of heirs in England, grandson and great-grandsons. Because they did not live in it, the castle fell into disuse.

Despite the distance and costs that the castle brought with it, the owners tried to keep it in their possession. Sales of wood and rental had to make this happen.

Definitive name: Doorwerth

During this time, the French had the power in these regions. With the registration that the French performed the name had to be written. Because the owners were English, therefore, an English tint has been given.

Adolph Hoefner
Adolph Hoefner

Baron van Brakell

Because the Aldenburg family only rarely lived in the castle, it has slowly fallen into disrepair. 1837 it was sold to Jacob Adriaan Prosper, Baron van Brakell. He restored the castle with a lot of money and modernized it to the taste of that time. Together with his wife and nine children he brought new life to Doorwerth. In addition, he regularly organized hunting parties and receptions.

Van Brakell was looking for new income with rights that the lord of Doorwerth did posess earlier in time had lapsed.
He had 200 hectares of moorland planted with pines. These fields had previously been cut down by the Bentincks.
With the construction of the railway line between Arnhem and Amsterdam, he insisted that a trainstation in Wolfheze was built. To make the trip to and from the station easier, he had the Italian road paved.
He also made it possible to use land for new farmland and factories.

After the death of the widow of the Baron in 1909, the castle fell again in disuse. The oldest son of the Baron sold the castle in 1910 to association ‘de Doorwerth’.

Adolph Hoefner

Frederic Adolph Hoefer an old soldier was the initiator of association ‘de doorwerth’. This association buys the castle and restores it. Once restored, the artillery museum of the initiator was installed there in 1913. This later became the Army Museum. One of the first museum in a castle in the Netherlands. The Commandery Netherlands of the Johanniter Order also get a place.

Disagreement

The disagreement about the restoration of Kasteel Doorwerth prompted the Dutch Archaeological Association to formulate general restoration principles.
In the Doorwerth castle it was all about disagreement between P.J.H. Cuypers and Victor de Stuers, architecural advisers from the government and Vereniging de Doorwerth. The advisors wanted the entrance gate and hallway to be removed along the south wing. Something that was eventually implemented.

tekening die de basis voor de renovatie vormde
drawing basis for the renovation

After the war

In 1944 the castle was destroyed by garnet fire. This happened in the aftermath of the battle of Arnhem at the end of September 1944. The ammunition stocks of the German were set on fire and fired on by the Allies.
After the war, the Verenging de Doorwerth took the initiative for restoration. In 1956 the Geldersche Kasteelen took over the management. In 1969 she also got the ownership of castle Doorwerth. For this restoration the situation of the castle of 17th century situation was chosen.

From 1974 the Dutch Hunting Museum took place in the southern wing.

1983 restoration of 37 years is completed, from now on the castle can be visited by the public.
1986 the castle was opened to the public with Museum Veluwezoom in the east wing.

de verwoesting van de tweede wereld oorlog
the devastation of the second world war
kasteel doorwerth in de tweede wereld oorlog
castle doorwerth in the second world war
Renovatie van Kasteel doorwerth
Renovation of Kasteel doorwerth